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Certainly, when preparing for competitive exams, it's essential to focus on key facts and details about the Indus Valley Civilization. Here are some must-know facts that are often important for various competitive exams:


1. Chronology:

   - The Indus Valley Civilization existed approximately between 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE.


2. Geographical Extent:

   - The civilization spanned across parts of modern-day Pakistan and northwest India, including regions in Punjab, Sindh, Haryana, and Gujarat.


3. Major Cities:

   - Notable cities include Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa, Dholavira, and Lothal, showcasing advanced urban planning and architecture.


4. Trade and Economy:

   - The Indus people engaged in extensive trade with Mesopotamia, as evidenced by archaeological findings.

   - They had a predominantly agricultural economy, cultivating crops like wheat, barley, and cotton.

5. Script and Writing:

   - The Indus script, found on seals and artifacts, remains largely undeciphered to this day, posing a mystery to historians.


6. Social Structure:

   - The society had a well-structured class system and featured skilled artisans, traders, and laborers.


7. Religious Practices:

   - Archaeological evidence suggests the worship of a mother goddess and certain animals.

   - Seals depicting deities and rituals have been discovered.


8. Technological Advancements:

   - The Indus people had knowledge of metallurgy, producing copper and bronze artifacts.

   - They had advanced skills in pottery and urban sanitation, with well-laid drainage systems.


9. Decline and Disappearance:

   - The reasons for the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization remain debated, with theories including ‘natural disasters, climate change, or invasions’.


10. Archaeological Significance:

   - The discovery of the civilization's remains significantly contributed to our understanding of ‘ancient human civilizations’.

   - The civilization's artifacts are crucial in studying the ‘evolution of human societies’.


Understanding these key facts about the Indus Valley Civilization is vital for competitive exams, as questions related to ancient history and civilizations are frequently featured in various tests. Studying these facts not only aids exam preparation but also provides valuable insights into the early roots of human civilization.

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